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第一时间更新最新章节 新未来新世界永盛新启航永利。

Howdoesaninvestigationofsocial-culturalinfl论文类别:工商管理论文下载-管理理论论文下载上传时间:2008/9/178:40:00论文作者:未知论文版本:简体版繁体版英文版1.Internationalmarketingingeneralisinfluencedbysocio-cultural,background,religiousbeliefsandcustomswhichcannotbeoverviewed.Theculturaldimensionprovidesthechanceandchallengetomarketers.Sotheinvestigationissignificantwhichwillmakethedecisionaccordinglyandmorecorrectly.Withthefollowingwewillintroducethenecessityindetail.Customisthemostimportantfactorinfluencethemarketing.Infact,successfulmarketingpeoplesawthecloseconnectionbetweencustomandcustomers:thewaytoturnpeopleintocustomersistomakeyourproductpartoftheircustomaryactions.Sometimeswholeindustriesarecreatedaroundacustom(Halloweencostumes)andatothertimes,customsarecreatedaroundaproduct(Valentine’sDaycards).Inbothcases,marketerstookadvantagesofthebasichumanneedforritual.Culturesdistinguishthemselvesbytheirrituals,evenwhentheyshareacommonlanguage.Collectingknowledgeaboutlocalcustomisbestdoneupcloseandfirsthand.Getting“ontheground”informationiswellworththecostthatitmayentail.Ifyourfirsttriptoanewcountryisforthepurposeofsellingaproductratherthaninvestingthepotentialtosellone,youmaybedisappointed.Marketershavetolearnhow,why,andwhenthetargetmarketgoesaboutitsbusinessinordertomakeyourproductfit.Anothershouldbetakenintoconsiderislanguage:Mostoftheworld’snationalboundariesaresetalonglinguisticperimeters.Especiallynames,whichareimportantineverylanguageandformarketers,brandnamesareparamount.Arrivinginanewmarketwithagreatnewproductthat’ssaddledwithabadbrandnamecouldspelldisaster.Evenestablishedinternationalcompanieshaveproblemswiththeirnames:SiemensisrarelyspelledcorrectlyanywherebutGermany,andfewpeopleineastAsiacanpronounceNestleproperty,norcanWesternerspronounceHyundai.Investigationofthelanguagewassurelykeyinnamingtheproduct.Also,thehistorycannotbeneglected.Everycountryandculture,whetherit’sasancientasIndiaorasyoungastheCzechRepublic,hasahistorythatwillgreatlyaffectboththemarketandthemarketer.Understandingthathistorywillenableamarketertoapproachthecultureinamoresubtlemanner,anditwillcertainlycauseanadjustmentofschedule.Ontheotherend,aculturethathasbeenmarkedbyindependenceforsometimewillhavefewfearsofforeignoperationsandmayfindthesubtleapproachfartoolacklusterandslow.Marketersmaybringtheirownbusinesstotheprocessandshouldtakecaretoseparatethemselves,atleastemotionally,fromtheirpersonalandculturalhistory.Oftentimes,thisincludesracialprejudicesthataredifficulttoshake,earlierpoliticaldisagreementsthathaveneverbeenfullysettled,ofoldunhealedwarwounds.Moreover,whenenteringtheforeigntherewillbemanyotheraspectsshouldbelearned,suchasreligion,thefamily,theeducationect.Theinvestigationoftheculturedimensionwillprovideinsightsforthemanagers,andthentheywilldealwiththebusinesseasilyandappropriately.Insomecases,itrunsalonggenderlines.Generallyspeaking,theinvestigationofsocia-culturalinfluenceswillbenefitthethemarketing:engageyourknow-howtoincreasesecurity;getimportantdetailstoreachyourmostimportantprospectivecustomers;reduceyourcostsforgoodscreditsandhence:increaseyourprofit.Themanagersneedtoputgreatemphasisontheinvestigation.2.Entrymodel(think2differententrymodel)inadditiontoevaluating2alternativemarketentrymodes.Alsodiscussthefactorsthatinfluenceaffirmschoicebetweenthealternative.Thereareavarietyofkindstoenteranothermarket,thesimplestformofentrystrategyisexporting,andmorecomplexformsincludetrulyglobaloperationswhichmayinvolvejointventures.ThefollowingwillintroducejointventureandFDI,alsocomparethedifferencebetweenthem.JointventuresJointventurescanbedefinedas"anenterpriseinwhichtwoormoreinvestorsshareownershipandcontroloverpropertyrightsandoperation".Jointventuresareamoreextensiveformofparticipationthaneitherexportingorlicensing.Therearefivecommonobjectivesinajointventure:marketentry,risk/rewardsharing,technologysharingandjointproductdevelopment,andconformingtogovernmentregulations.Otherbenefitsincludepoliticalconnectionsanddistributionchannelaccessthatmaydependonrelationships.Thekeyissuestoconsiderinajointventureareownership,control,lengthofagreement,pricing,technologytransfer,localfirmcapabilitiesandresources,andgovernmentintentions.FDI:Foreigndirectinvestment(FDI)isdefinedas“investmentmadetoacquirelastinginterestinenterprisesoperatingoutsideoftheeconomyoftheinvestor.”TheFDIrelationshipconsistsofaparententerpriseandaforeignaffiliatewhichtogetherformatransnationalcorporation.InordertoqualifyasFDItheinvestmentmustaffordtheparententerprisecontroloveritsforeignaffiliate.ForaninvestmenttoqualifyasFDI,physicalcapitalmustbecreatedintheforeigncountry(suchasmanufacturingfacilities,orfactories.)Thisphysicalcapitaliscontrolledbyafirmbasedoutsideofthereceiving,orhostcountry.Foreigndirectinvestmentisconsideredtobeaverystableinvestmentbecauseitinvolvesthecreationofphysicalcapital.FDIisconsideredtobealongterminvestmentbecausephysicalcapitalisnoteasilyliquidated.Comparethetwomodes:ModeJointventuresDirectinvestmentConditionsfavoringthismodeLargeculturalDistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialSomepoliticalriskGovernmentrestrictionsonforeignownershipLocalcompanycanprovideskills,resources,distributionnetwork,brandname,etc,Partners’size,marketpower,andresourcesaresmallcomparedtotheindustryleaders;SmallculturaldistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialLowpoliticalriskAdvantagesOvercomeownershiprestrictionsandculturaldistanceCombinesresourcesof2companiesPotentialforlearningLessinvestmentrequiredSharingofriskandabilityJointfinancialstrengthMaybeonlymeansofentryandThesourceofsupplyforathirdcountry.GreaterknowledgeoflocalmarketCanbetterapplyspecializedskilledCanbeviewedasaninsiderDisadvantagesDifficulttomanageDilutionofcontrolGreaterriskthanexportinga&licensingMaybeimpossibletorecovercapitalDisagreementonthirdpartymarketstoserveHigherriskRequiresmoreresourcesandcommitmentMaybedifficulttomanagethelocalresourcesCase:QuebecorWorldwillprint20billiondirectorypagesayearinMexico,equaltomorethan75percentoftheMexicandirectorymarket.Whichmakeuseofthefollowingtwopoints:FDIbyacquisition;FDIwillincreasecapacity,andcompetitivenessoftarget.Differentmodesofentrymaybemoreappropriateunderdifferentcircumstances,andthemodeofentryisanimportantfactorinthesuccessoftheproject.Ifthepartnerscarefullymapoutinadvancewhattheyexpecttoachieveandhow,thenmanyproblemscanbeovercome.3.Acquisition(largeconsumermanufacture):Introduction:Undertheconditionofmodernenterprisesystemandmarketeconomy,“acquisition”oftenreferstoalegalactforanenterprisetoacquirethecontrolpowerandmanagingpowerofanotherenterprisethroughacertainchannel.Whichisalsoknownasatakeover,isthebuyingofonecompany(the‘target’)byanother.Anacquisitionmaybefriendlyorhostile.Intheformercase,thecompaniescooperateinnegotiations;inthelattercase,thetakeovertargetisunwillingtobeboughtorthetarget'sboardhasnopriorknowledgeoftheoffer.免费论文下载中Typesofacquisition:Thebuyerbuystheshares,andthereforecontrolsthetargetcompanybeingpurchased.Ownershipcontrolofthecompanyinturnconveyseffectivecontrolovertheassetsofthecompany,butsincethecompanyisacquiredasagoingbusiness;suchtransactioncarriesalloftheliabilitiesaccruedbythatbusinessoveritspastandalloftherisksthatcompanyfacesinitscommercialenvironment.Thebuyerbuystheassetsofthetargetcompany.Thecashthetargetreceivesfromthesell-offispaidbacktoitsshareholders.Suchtransactionleavesthetargetcompanyasanemptyshell.Abuyeroftenstructuresthetransactionasanassetpurchaseto"cherry-pick"theassets.Adisadvantageofthisstructureisthetaxthatmanyjurisdictions.Recently,alongwiththedevelopmentoftheeconomic,thescaleoftheacquisitionbecomesoverwhelmingandthephenomenonmorenormal.ThemainwaysofacquisitionofChineselistedcompaniesbyforeigncapitalarethefollowing:acquisitionbyagreement,acquisitionbyoffer,increasingtoissueBsharetocertainpeople,indirectacquisition,enteringintoChineselistedcompaniesbywayofjoiningtheprocessofchangingstateassetscreditors’rightsintostockinterests,formingChinese-foreignjointventuresandsoon.Basedthebackgroundofeconomicglobalization,acquisitionofChineseenterprisesbyforeigncapitalhasbecomethemaininternationaldirectinvestmentwaybyforeigncountries.Chineselistedcompaniesaretheirmainobjects.ExampleAgilent'sacquisitionofIBM'sarrayandchargetestassetscombinesIBM'stechnologyandproductknowledge,itslargeinstalledbase,anditsmarketrecognition.TheacquisitionisbeingintegratedintoAgilent'sHachiojiSemiconductorTestDivision.AgilenthasassumedfullresponsibilityforIBM'swideinstalledbaseofFPDmanufacturersinJapan,TaiwanandKorea,aswellasongoingcommitmentsinapplicationsupport,productsupportandfuturerequirements.FPDmanufacturershavelongunderstoodthevalueofarraytesting,suchaspost-processcostsavings,expeditedyieldramp-upandstabilizationoftheproductionprocess.Movingforward,bybuildinguponthefoundationofbothAgilent'sandIBM'stechnologyandexpertise,AgilentexpectstosetanewindustrystandardforFPDarraytestingintermsofabsolutemeasurementsensitivityandspeed.Theyalsoexpecttodelivertocustomersimprovedmanufacturingprocessesatlowercost-of-test,ultimatelyenablingmoreaffordableFPDproducts.Acquisitionisaneffectiveapproachforenterprisestoenterintoforeignmarkets.Soacquisitioncannotonlyenlargetheclientbaseofcompany,butalsomakeitmorecompetitiveforforeignproductcost.Anditcanalsoprovidemoredistributionchannelsofexportmarket.Qlast:AmericantheoryofHRM----internationalboundaries&‘cultures----Hofstedculturedimensions.人力资源引入:(A)Humanresourcemanagementisthetheory,techniques,methods,andtoolsforstudyingtheadjustmentofpeopleandtheirrelationsintheorganization,connectionbetweenworkanditsrelations,matchingthepeopleandworkinordertofullydevelophumanresourcemanagement,tappeople’spotentials,motivatingpeople,promotingtheworkefficienciesandmeetingtheorganizationalobjectives.AndanotherquotefromTomKeenoyisthatHRM’smainpurposeisto“providealegitimatemanagementideologytofacilitatetheintensificationofwork”.Toachievethisobjective,themeaning,historicaldevelopmentandtheoreticalunderpinningsofHRMareoutlined.Globalizationhaspotentialimplicationsforvirtuallyalloftheresearchneedsanddirectionswealreadyhaveidentified.Today'sincreasinglyglobal,competitivemarketplacehasdrivenconsiderablechangesinlabormarkets,andhastransformedthepracticeofHumanResourceManagement.Expandedmultinationaloperationswithinlargecompanies,combinedwithincreasedtechnologyandcommunicationcapability,haveledtovastdiffusionofglobal“bestpractices”inHRM.引出文化差异现象,提出并分析问题(B)HowevertheCoreofCross-CulturalManagementCulturaldifferencesaffecttheefficiencyoforganizationsthroughpeople’sminds,valuesandbehavior.Itisalsohumans(forexample,themanagers)whoimplementcross-culturalmanagement.Aglobalorganizationneedstounderstandcross-culturaldifferencesbothinsideandoutsidetheorganization.Managingglobalboardsandseniorexecutivecommitteesrequiresasophisticatedunderstandingofculturaldifferencesininteractionpatternsandinattitudestowardstime,influence,andproblemsolvingstyles.Generallyspeaking,therearethreeculturaldimensionsdefined:Powerdistance,Uncertaintyavoidance,Inpidualism.AsfarasIknow,themostsignificantinfluenceinculturaldifferenceisthepowerdistance.Itisthedistancebetweenamanagerandsubordinate.Amongmostorientalcorporatecultures,thatisahighpowerdistanceculturethatmanagersmakethedecisionandsuperiorsappealtotheentitledmoreprivileges.Insuchsituation,itisnotberegardsifasubordinateshaveadisagreementwiththeirmanagers.Butinthewest,whentheemployeegotdifferentideas,hewillgotodiscusstheproblemwithhisboss.Conflictandmisunderstandingmustoccuriftwoormoreinterculturesmeetup.Underthissituation,theinternationalmanagersmustpayattentiontotheclashesandbeawareof.Howtoworkthesubordinatestogetherefficientlyandmorecooperativelyisimportanttoo.TheseconddimensionHofstedeindicatedistheuncertaintyavoidancewhichisthelackoftoleranceforriskandtheneedforformalrules.Theyfeelsafeandpridefulwhentheykeepworkinghardattheoneplacesoanexcellentmanagershouldkeephisemployeeawayfromunpredictablerisk.Onantherhandtheemployeewouldliketobeworkedwithingroupsratherthanindependentlycauseofthelessrisk-taking.Butinmostwesterncountries,highjobmobilityoccursinthosecountriessuchasUSA,Denmark,Singapore.Theythinkthejobwhentheychangetheirjobs,moreandbetterjobscanbehunted.Andtheycangetmoreexperiencecausetheylikechallenge.Acompetentmanagershouldpayattentionontherulessettingbetweendifferentuncertaintyavoidance.Themisreadingofthatmayaffecttheinitiativeandtheaspirationofthesubordinates.Thenthereisalsoalargediscrepancyontheinpidualism.Itisaconcernforyourselfasaninpidualasopposedtoconcernforthegroup.Thepriorityofself-concernorgroup-concernvariesfromdifferentcultures.Forexample,mostwesternemployeesliketoworkwiththeirownplanfordefendingtheirinterest.Thatisahighinpidualism.Theyjustsimplyworkintheirownways,followtheirownrules,andachievetheirownobjective.Itisgoodforacompanytogatherasmuchideasastheycanwhenstartinganewprogram.Buthowtomanagetheseinpidualstoreachthegroupgoalshouldbetheawarenessformanagers.Ithinkwhoisgoodatthisshouldbegoodatgrouping,troubleshooting,andcoordinatingskills.Cross-culturalmanagementisafascinatinglycomplexsubject.Crossculturalknowledgeandawarenesscanassistexecutivestoimprovemanagementskills.Moreimportantly,itcanalsohelpbusinessleadersmaketherightstrategicdecisions.TheabovethreedimensionsilluminatedthemostimportantculturaldifferencesthataffectonHRM.Internationalmanagersoughttobeabletoawarenotonlytheculturaldifferencebutalsotheinterculturalcommunication.转贴于免费论文下载中声明:本论文来自免费论文下载中心:200809/81894.asp免费论文下载中心所发布的论文版权归原作者所有,本站仅供大家学习、研究、参考之用,未取得作者授权严禁摘编、篡改、用作商业用途.

一、加强教员思想建设,提高职能意识,确保贯彻科学发展观的正确性思想是行动的先导,要想思想上的坚定,必须首先保持理论上的清醒。

自然因素如落雷、飓风、大雾等自然气候引起的事故;

从做好预算控制入手,进而重视企业内部控制,建立起内控制度,从而逐步建立起一套标准化管理体系和管理模式,这种模式应该是固化而不是善变的,是一种沉淀下来的操作系统,它是理性和有秩序的,能让企业正常运行。

5、用电单位发生电气事故的处理方法用电单位一旦发生人身触电伤亡或电气火灾,以及发生导致电力系统跳闸、高压供电的用户生产中断、一次用电设备损坏等重大电气事故,应及时向当地供电部门报告,并尽可能保护好现场,以便供电部门组织人力及时进行调查处理,迅速恢复供电。

(3)创新性。

(2)建立健全企业规章制度。

再次,在知识经济时代,知识产品的价值商品价值的总公式W=C+V+M对知识产品同样适用。

只有这些激励体系与约束体系的建立并有效发挥,以关键绩效指标为核心的绩效考核才能真正发挥作用。

其五、国家采取积极的措施鼓励风险投资企业对中小企业的投资力度,对于符合条件的投资额可以用来抵消其所得税。

智慧交通与城市发展研究论文类别:经济学论文下载-发展战略论文下载上传时间:2021/5/79:10:19论文作者:朱成峰论文版本:简体版繁体版摘要:良好的交通状况对城市发展较为重要,在交通运输、日常通行中,良好的交通状况是维护城市秩序的关键现阶段,随着我国城市化进程的不断加快,越来越多的城市重视通过智能信息化技术构建智慧交通体系,通过完善架构与明确发展方向,为城市交通制定长远合理的发展规划基于此,本文就智慧交通与城市发展研究进行相关探讨关键词:智慧交通;

(三)模型设定OP=α0+α1LagOP+α2ROA+α3Loss+α4LnTSAT+α5ARINV+α6Turnover+α7Quick+α8Leverage+β1CI0+β2CIA因变量OP用审计意见类型代表审计质量自变量CI0用来刻画某一客户对事务所的重要性水平CIA用来刻画某一客户对个人审计师的重要性水平控制变量LagOP前一期的审计意见类型QUICK速动比率ARINV应收账款加存货与总资产的比值表示LEVERAGE资产负债率TURNOVER用营业收入(销售收入)比上总资产ROA资产回报率LOSS被报告年度发生损失位1,否则位0LNTAST顾客总资产的自然对数其中L:表示审计师K审计的客户的数量M:表示在审计意见上签字的审计师的个数(四)研究结果(1)1995―2000年与2001―2006年的模型对比表一:1995-2000年2001-2006年变量估计系数T值Sig.共线性统量VIF估计系数T值Sig.共线性统计量VIFLagOP0.03520.398***0.0001.2290.03951.737***0.0001.259ROA-0.989-6.01***0.0002.41-1.180-27.708***0.0001.988LOSS0.0378.203***0.0001.9010.15811.885***0.0001.583LNTAST0.0030.2610.7491.5710.0071.4980.1341.849ARINV0.2766.948***0.0001.2480.0383.480***0.0011.360TURNOVER-0.072-2.967***0.0031.088-0.004-0.6010.5481.065QUICK0.0324.107***0.0001.3790.0062.7240.0061.074LEVERAGE0.3685.832***0.0002.2050.0788.686***0.0001.076CI0-0.053-0.2080.8351.915-0.047-0.5580.5771.431CIA-0.008-0.0280.9781.7750.0300.3400.7341.328AdjR-Sq0.3550.578DW值2.0181.994F值179.284910.865Sig.0.0000.000样本量3242个6661个表二:年份标准无保留意见*加意见段的无保留意见保留意见无法发表意见及否定意见199523087.45%41.521%2911.03%00%199624985.57%206.873%217.217%10.343%199739884.68%388.086%326.809%20.426%199852080.25%8312.81%335.093%121.852%199956377.55%10113.91%496.749%131.791%200068481.04%9911.73%485.687%131.540%1995-2000年合计264481.56%34510.64%2126.539%411.265%标准审计意见81.56%非标准审计意见18.44%200183485.89%808.23%394.02%181.85%200291687.07%878.27%343.23%151.43%2003103991.87%524.60%211.86%191.68%2004102497.62%565.34%444.20%252.38%2005108988.32%685.51%504.06%262.12%2006114889.83%745.79%332.58%231.80%2001-2006合计605088.79%4176.12%2213.24%1261.85%标准审计意见88.79%非标准审计意见11.21%(2)2001―2006年与2007―2009年的数据模型对比表三:2001-2006年2007-2009年变量估计系数T值Sig.共线性统量VIF估计系数T值Sig.共线性统计量VIFLagOP0.03951.737***0.0001.2590.54848.584***0.0001.212ROA-1.180-27.708***0.0001.988-0.009-2.826***0.0051.050LOSS0.15811.885***0.0001.5830.26718.591***0.0001.089LNTAST0.0071.4980.1341.849-0.015-3.570***0.0001.381ARINV0.0383.480***0.0011.360-0.013-0.9710.3591.034TURNOVER-0.004-0.6010.5481.065-0.018-2.306***0.0211.032QUICK0.0062.7240.0061.074-.006-2.383***0.0171.060LEVERAGE0.0788.686***0.0001.076-.0032.414***0.0161.162CI0-0.047-0.5580.5771.431-0.149-2.290***0.0221.142CIA0.0300.3400.7341.328-0.035-0.5210.6031.085AdjR-Sq0.5780.486DW值1.9941.983F值910.865405.059Sig.0.0000.000样本量6661个4247个表四:年份标准无保留意见*加意见段的无保留意见保留意见无法发表意见及否定意见200183485.89%808.23%394.02%181.85%200291687.07%878.27%343.23%151.43%2003103991.87%524.60%211.86%191.68%2004102497.62%565.34%444.20%252.38%2005108988.32%685.51%504.06%262.12%2006114889.83%745.79%332.58%231.80%01-06合计605088.79%4176.12%2213.24%1261.85%标准审计意见88.79%非标准审计意见11.21%2007122692.25%795.94%120.90%120.90%2008135093.17%684.70%141.93%171.17%2009136793.06%724.90%130.89%171.16%07-09合计394392.84%2195.16%390.90%461.08%标准审计意见92.84%非标准审计意见7.16%五、结论分析对于本文的主要变量CI0和CIA,从表一和表三种我们可以明显观察出如下变化:事务所水平:CI0经历了由负相关(不显著)――负相关(不显著)――负相关(显著)审计师水平:CIA经历了由负相关(不显著)――正相关(不显著)――负相关(不显著)我们的结论表明,当体制环境对投资者保护较弱时,个人审计师更容易对其在经济上有重要作用的客户采取妥协,从而降低了审计质量。

(二)在ERP环境下,内控体系运行的原则1、职责分离、互相牵制,对不相容的管理或业务岗位进行严格分离和合适授权;

基于这种想法,在进行产品的前期设计时,就应该对以下三个方面加以注意。

20世纪30年代至50年代涌现了激励思想,并逐步形成管理者激励生产者的激励理论。

(3)引入并重视集中管理下的风险运作。

其次,要确定存货资金的占用额。

然而,浙江省面料业发展中存在诸多问题,如产品结构落后、产品质量不稳定、批量大交货期长、流通渠道不通畅等。

以美国为代表的发达国家以信息技术和创新为特征步入了新经济时代。

本文主要目的是考察公共支出的驱动与制约因素,为节约篇幅,只对公共支出模型估计的可信性进行检验,这可以通过lng的拟合值和实际值的比较反映出来。

衡量产业结构可持续发展与否的指标实质上是作为一种信息反馈机制而存在。

即股东会是企业的最高权力机构,代表所有者对企业重大问题作出决策;

黑龙江省某县新型农村合作医疗试点工作开展三年以来,为全县农民补偿基金3600万元,受益人口达到51000人次。

家庭联产承包责任制实行初期,农村集体经济实行承包、租赁、合资等经营方式,农村集体经济组织的数量和规模得以扩大,农村集体经济有了质的发展。

(未完待续。。)

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